IMAGEMEND will specifically focus on schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These disorders are genetically related, pose severe differential diagnostic and managing problems and are among the major contributors to overall disease burden and cost, due to their early age of onset, often chronic course, absence of curative treatments and frequently life-long impairments. The predominant diagnostic system for mental illnesses are the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) (Apa 2000) and the broadly similar ICD-10, whose fundamental structure date back to more than 100 years ago when dementia praecox and mania were first distinguished by Emil Kraepelin. Diagnostic criteria of the DSM/ICD system are defined based on course and the presence or absence of symptoms, but do not take into account neuropsychological or biological processes (Schwarz, VanBeveren, et al. 2011).